Unequal in America

ONE OF THE MOST JARRING and painful numbers in America's history on race relations is three-fifths. That, according to the U.S. Constitution written in 1789, was how African-American slaves were counted – as three-fifths of a person – determining population for the purpose of calculating states' representation in Congress.

More than two centuries after the Constitution was penned, a century and a half since the 14th Amendment undid the so-called "three fifths compromise," and 50 years since the height of the modern civil rights movement, African-Americans still fall short when it comes to equality, according to a sweeping report by the Urban League. To put a number on it, African-Americans are at 72.5 percent – less than three-fourths – when it comes to achieving equality with white Americans, according to the study, which addressed economics, health, education, civic engagement and social justice.

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